Radulphus Ardens (fl. 1190s) was a famous preacher and a distinguished theologian. While modern scholarship is already familiar with his sermon collections, his final work, the Speculum uniuersale, still remains unedited and virtually unexplored. In it he discusses questions and solutions to what he calls the necessary sacraments, namely Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Penance, and Extreme Unction. Building upon the sacramental theology of Peter Lombard and Simon of Tournai, he offers solutions that advance the ideas of his predecessors, sometimes in unique ways. He thereby becomes an important witness to the development of sacramental theology in the late twelfth century.
This is the first Latin edition and translation of Radulphus’ treatment of the sacraments. The introduction offers a biographical sketch, a summary of his writings, and an analysis of the manuscript tradition of the Speculum. Included as well are extended Latin citations from elsewhere in the Speculum, from Simon of Tournai’s Institutiones in sacram paginam, and from many other post-Lombardian theologians such as Magister Martin and Praepositinus – a wealth of Latin materials that situate Radulphus’ sacramental theology both within the framework of his moral theology and within the theological milieu of the late twelfth century. This work will be of interest to scholars and students who are interested in the history of sacramental theology in the early scholastic period.